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Translated Jeff Matthews

Also called a 'gun turret', the cupola is made of metal and is generally shaped like a hemisphere. It has a single gun hole used for a howitzer or cannon, but may also be used by machine guns or a spotlight. It may also be employed as an armored look-out emplacement to direct artillery fire. It may have various shapes.

Generally, the cupola/turret is the main active element of modern fortifications and may be isolated or connected to other defensive structures. It may be an integral part of a permanent fixed defence such as a wall, a center of fire, a road block, etc.

references:

Padovan Gianluca (ed. ), Archaeology of the Subsoil. Lectures and studies of artificial cavities. British Archaeological Reports, International Series 1416, Oxford 2005.

Basilico Roberto et alii, Italian Cadastre of Artificial Cavities. Part 1. (Including introductory comments and a classification), B.A.R. International Series 1599, Oxford 2007.

Gianluca Padovan (Associazione S.C.A.M. – Federazione Nazionale Cavità Artificiali)

References:

Padovan Gianluca (ed. ), Archaeology of the Subsoil. Lectures and studies of artificial cavities. British Archaeological Reports, International Series 1416, Oxford 2005.

Basilico Roberto et alii, Italian Cadastre of Artificial Cavities. Part 1. (Including introductory comments and a classification), B.A.R. International Series 1599, Oxford 2007.

Gianluca Padovan (Associazione S.C.A.M. – Federazione Nazionale Cavità Artificiali)

Click on images to enlarge

Cupola at the end of the 1800s

Cupola or turret (Borgatti M., La fortificazione permanente)

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