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Translated Jeff Matthews

The redoubt is a relatively unimportant military structure; it may be isolated or part of a larger defensive system. Gariglio and Minola list three types:
- small bastion also known as a lunette, generally found at the foot of the glacis;
- small quadrangular or irregular shaped fort for the reinforcement of trenches or trenched fields;
- small fort providing bridge, lock protection etc.; masonry and/or casemated fort. (Gariglio D., Minola M., Le fortezze delle Alpi Occidentali. Volume 1. Dal Piccolo S. Bernardo al Monginevro. Associazione per gli Studi di Storia e Architettura Militare, Edizioni L’Arciere, Cuneo 1994, p. 276).

If constructed of masonry, the redoubt may be casemated and is sometimes called a 'fort'. Sometimes the term is used to indicate a “fortified defensive line”. In ancient times it might also have been the last defensive position within a fortress, the last fall-back position. The Maria Theresa redoubt is in the mountains on the left side of the Arc river, south-east of Avrieux (France); its function was to block the Moncenisio road. It was built between 1819 and 1825 under the auspices of the Kingdom of Piedmont and Sardinia; it was one of the forts in the defensive line known as the Esseillon Barrier.

references:

Padovan Gianluca (ed. ), Archaeology of the Subsoil. Lectures and studies of artificial cavities. British Archaeological Reports, International Series 1416, Oxford 2005.

Basilico Roberto et alii, Italian Cadastre of Artificial Cavities. Part 1. (Including introductory comments and a classification), B.A.R. International Series 1599, Oxford 2007.

Gianluca Padovan (Associazione S.C.A.M. – Federazione Nazionale Cavità Artificiali)

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