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Translated Jeff Matthews

This is generally a casemated structure. It may be built within a rocky flank or underground and is meant to protect persons, animals, and material from artillery fire. These were built everywhere and many forms exist: open-air, basement (i.e., partially underground) and completely underground. Period manuals on fortifications often refer to them as “shelters” and they may be within the central portion of the fortification or beyond the perimeter as well as on side crossings.

With the development of aerial ordnance, the tendency has been to build these structures completely underground and furnish them with appropriate defensive systems against chemical weapons.

references:

Padovan Gianluca (ed. ), Archaeology of the Subsoil. Lectures and studies of artificial cavities. British Archaeological Reports, International Series 1416, Oxford 2005.

Basilico Roberto et alii, Italian Cadastre of Artificial Cavities. Part 1. (Including introductory comments and a classification), B.A.R. International Series 1599, Oxford 2007.

Gianluca Padovan (Associazione S.C.A.M. – Federazione Nazionale Cavità Artificiali)

Click on images to enlarge

Refuges (Borgatti M., La fortificazione permanente, II)

Refuges for infantry (Borgatti M., La fortificazione permanente)

Refuges beneath passages (Borgatti M., La fortificazione permanente)

Refuge at Teglio (ph. G. Padovan)

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