Translated Jeff Matthews
A Ringstand (also called a Tobruk in Italian, see below) is a small casemated bunker. They are easy to construct and set up. One common versatile Ringstand model is the Vf 58, with an opening for one soldier to fire a light machine-gun, use binoculars to observe or to employ an optical signaling device. This particular model is built using 11.5 m³ of cement and 750 kg of steel rods. It has a top opening 80 cm in diameter, is 2.75 meters high, 2.36 m wide and 3.79 m long. Other models could be equipped with a mortar (Vf 69), or cannon, for example, the Vf 600v or the Vf 221. Others were equipped with anti-aircraft pieces, or flame-throwers, and other models, such as the Vf 236, Vf 237 (based on the Vf 67) could be fitted with tank turrets on top.
Padovan Gianluca (ed. ), Archaeology of the Subsoil. Lectures and studies of artificial cavities. British Archaeological Reports, International Series 1416, Oxford 2005.
Basilico Roberto et alii, Italian Cadastre of Artificial Cavities. Part 1. (Including introductory comments and a classification), B.A.R. International Series 1599, Oxford 2007.
Gianluca Padovan (Associazione S.C.A.M. – Federazione Nazionale Cavità Artificiali)
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